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炒房团复活或致泡沫重现 暗示流动性进入楼市

Editorials

Covid-19: breaking the chain of household transmission

BMJ 2020; 370 doi: 去年公积金缴存额超1.8万亿,京沪个人房贷骤降一半 (Published 14 August 2020) Cite this as: BMJ 2020;370:m3181

Read our latest coverage of the coronavirus outbreak

  1. Shamil Haroon, clinical lecturer in primary care1,
  2. Joht Singh Chandan, academic clinical fellow in public health12,
  3. John Middleton, president3,
  4. Kar Keung Cheng, professor of public health and primary care1
  1. 1Institute of Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
  2. 2Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK
  3. 3Association of Schools of Public Health in the European Region (ASPHER)
  1. Correspondence to: S Haroon s.haroon{at}bham.ac.uk

发改委:我国有足够的政策空间来应对世界经济不确定性冲击

The UK is one of the countries most severely affected by covid-19. Recent outbreaks in English towns such as Oldham, probably involving transmission within large multigenerational households, show the importance of getting the right public health measures in place now to prevent more widespread surges in infections.1

Current test and trace policies have mainly focused on preventing spread in care homes, hospitals, and in the community.2 However, contact within households is thought to be responsible for roughly 70% of SARS-CoV-2 transmission when widespread community control measures are in place.3 In Wuhan, the reproduction number (R) dropped from 3.54 to 1.18 after lockdown and cordon sanitaire. But the epidemic was only brought under complete control when Fangcang (field) hospitals were introduced to isolate cases outside the home, with R dropping to 0.51 after two weeks.4

Current UK guidance advises household contacts to isolate within the same home as the index case for 14 days.5 They make up the majority of contacts for infected individuals and are likely to remain exposed to the infected household member during this period of isolation.6 Despite guidance advising household members to socially distance, contacts are likely to interact repeatedly—during mealtimes, for example—and to share facilities such as bathrooms.

We know that transmission is more likely to occur indoors than outdoors.7 The cumulative risk to household contacts from an infected person is likely to be substantial during peak viral shedding. In one study in New York State, 38% of household contacts tested positive for SARS-Cov-2, and similar secondary infection rates have been reported in China.89 Transmission may be even higher among household contacts of essential workers, who are at greater risk of being infected than the general population.10

Household members who are older, have underlying medical conditions, or share a bed or vehicle with the index case are the most susceptible.91112 Children seem to be at lower risk of being infected.13 However, their stool samples and nasopharyngeal swabs can remain positive for SARS-CoV-2 for more than two weeks after symptom resolution,14 although their role in transmission remains to be established.

Governments should consider new public health measures to prevent household transmission as we prepare for a potential second wave. Household quarantine is likely to remain an important pandemic control measure, and government support for people quarantined at home is conspicuously absent in the UK: this position has been challenged by independent experts.15

Effective isolation

Effective isolation of index cases from household members could reduce secondary infections.12 Wearing masks within quarantined households may help, particularly if used by the index case as soon as infection is suspected.16 The World Health Organization recommends that infected people and unavoidable close contacts, particularly those in vulnerable groups, should wear medical masks, but Public Health England does not currently recommend this. Other measures that should be considered (and evaluated) include clear advice on enhanced personal hygiene; cleaning and disinfecting shared toilets and other common spaces, door handles, and touch points; and staggering mealtimes.

People who are unable to self-isolate safely at home could be accommodated in special isolation facilities such as hotels and hostels, an approach adopted by some other countries, including Italy, Finland, and Lithuania.17 In China, field hospitals were created to manage and strictly isolate patients with mild-to-moderate covid-19.18 Nightingale hospitals in the UK could be similarly repurposed to support isolation of infected people with mild-to-moderate disease. As medical and nursing care needs are mostly modest, the cost would be relatively low. However, such a system depends on access to rapid testing for anyone with symptoms or possible exposure so that infection can be confirmed and isolation started before transmission occurs. It would also require public trust that isolation in these facilities would be voluntary, safe, and supportive.

小说作者安东尼·赫洛维兹(Anthony Horowitz)透露,新书《Trigger Mortis》为现代读者作了改动,包含反对吸烟的信息,而且首次有一位“直言不讳”的同性恋朋友出场。
"How to tie a tie" was the No. 1 question in 2010, followed by "how to lose weight", "how to kiss" and "how to write a resume."
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If you think Kevin Durant is scrawny now, just take a look at his tiny physique back when he played at Montrose Christian.
以美元计,上个月进口下跌了18.8%,跌至1141.9亿美元,跌幅超过了去年12月的7.6%,也超过了下跌3.6%的预期。
She also said that in the longer-term the other “R” was “reset”, by which she explained that monetary and fiscal policies around the world still had a long way to go before they could be classed as normal. “The final reset is those structural reforms that are necessary in all corners of the world,” she added.
Don’t cry for the WTO

While heavily dominated by French and English schools, accounting for 44 per cent of the table, the ranking is more diverse than ever with schools from 25 countries.
(Actually, JetBlue wasn’t the absolute worst airline for departure delays the last three holiday seasons. That crown went to Comair, a regional carrier for Delta Air Lines
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In October last year North Korean border guards attempted to shoot down some balloons, triggering a brief exchange of heavy machine-gun fire between the two sides.
LEAST LADYLIKE

Footnotes

  • 2015卫浴行业大事件盘点 上市倒闭成主角
  • Even in jobs where you test applicants and those with the top scores are supposed to get the job, I've seen hiring managers fix scores to get the people they like.

1Switzerland
007系列电影主题曲第五名:保罗·麦卡特尼和Wings乐队--《生死关头》
最后,在EMBA榜单上,若剔除与非欧洲商学院的合办课程,瑞士洛桑国际管理发展学院(IMD)的毕业生的平均薪资为26.1397万美元,远远领先于排名第二的萨伊德商学院和排名第三的西班牙企业商学院。
其中包括“qwerty”(键盘字母顺序,排名第4)、“admin”(管理员,排名第11)和“login”(登录,排名第14)。
在许多情况下,这种做法已经渐渐从政界边缘进入主流。比如说,英国的执政党保守党立场是中间偏右,它曾经推进英国脱欧,公投之后,新的保守党首相特丽莎?梅(Theresa May)表现出对白人身份政治的同情。
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References

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